1-8-18 Genetics Definitions

asexual reproduction- reproduction that involves one parent producing offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.
sexual reproduction- reproduction that involves two parents producing offspring that are not genetically identical to the parents.
allele- a letter that represents the alternative forms of a gene that are found at the same place on a chromosome.
homozygous- having two identical alleles for a gene. ex (TT or tt)
heterozygous- having two different allels for a gene. ex (Tt or AB)
Punnett Square- a tool used to predict the possible offspring arising from genes that exhibit Mendelian genetics.
genetic variation- arises from sexual reproduction and produces offspring that are not genetically identical to parents
offspring- the result of reproduction.  called children when the parents are humans.
inherited trait- a genetically determined characteristic. ex brown eyes, green eyes, curly hair, tall stature, yellow flower olor, leaf shape
chromosome- the part of DNA that carries the genetic characteristics in the form of genes.
gene- a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
dominant- the allele that will overshadow recessive alleles. It will always appear in the phenotype.
recessive- the allele that will be overshadowed by dominant alleles.  It will only appear in the phenotype if both alleles are recessive.
genotype- the alleles that make up a gene. ex. Ss
phenotype- the visual presentation of the genes.  ex. Straight hair